Pathophysiology of ischemic cell death: III. Role of extracellular factors.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on cell survival of extracellular changes that occur during ischemia, over and above the depletion of O2 and substrate. Rabbit retinas were deprived in vitro of both O2 and substrate, and then returned to control medium for 4 h before recovery was assessed by measuring protein synthesis, glucose utilization, and tissue water. Experimental conditions were altered in various ways during the period of O2 and substrate deprivation in order to modify the changes taking place in the interstitial fluid as a result of the failure of energy metabolism. When O2-free, substrate-free extracellular electrolyte solution was added to the retinas to reduce the ischemia-induced changes in the interstitial fluid, there was marked reduction in irreversible damage. But when energy-deprived retinas were exposed to retinas that had already been ischemic, or to interstitial fluid from ischemic retinas, there was an increase in irreversible damage. Removing Ca++ from the extracellular fluid during the period of energy deprivation increased the damage due to short deprivations in a restricted volume of extracellular fluid, but reduced the damage from longer deprivations in a large volume of extracellular fluid. The results demonstrate that several changes occur in the extracellular fluid during ischemia that significantly affect recovery.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association