Brain injury from marked hypoxia in cats: role of hypotension and hyperglycemia.
The present study identifies several factors that govern brain pathologic response to marked hypoxia. None of 13 cats exposed to 25 minutes of marked hypoxia (FiO2 = 3.4%; PaO2 = 17 +/- 3 mm Hg, S.D.) that maintained mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) greater than 65 mm Hg were brain injured after reoxygenation and long term survival. In contrast, 12 of 13 exposed to the same hypoxia but that experienced reductions in MABP less than 45 mm Hg for 4 +/- 1 minutes developed a pattern of brain injury closely resembling that of humans surviving in a persistent vegetative state after cardiorespiratory arrest. Higher serum glucose and lactate concentrations and lower blood pH values significantly correlated with development of hypotension during hypoxia. Four of 8 cats exposed to 21 minutes of marked hypoxia followed by 4 minutes of 100% N2 breathing that also led to hypotension similarly developed brain injury. Among the hypoxic/hypotensive cats the magnitude of the hyperglycemic response to hypoxia as modulated by 0, 1, or 2 days of preexposure fasting, strongly correlated with occurrence and extent of brain damage. Peak cisterna magna CSF lactate concentrations 10 to 30 minutes into recovery distinguished those animals that remained brain-intact (less than 13 mM) from those that developed brain damage (greater than 15 mM) with 100% accuracy. Seven cats developed delayed cardiogenic shock 3 to 12 hours into the recovery period. This outcome was predicted by blood pH values less than 6.70 shortly after resuscitation while all 27 surviving cats exhibited values greater than 6.80.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association