Hemorrhagic cerebral infarction--a prospective study.
In 65 cases of ischemic cerebral infarction, CT scans and quantitative assessments of the neurological disturbances were undertaken at specific intervals during the 4 week period after stroke. Forty-three patients underwent lumbar puncture to determine the serum/CSF albumin ratio. The etiology of the infarction was evaluated on the basis of angiographic, ultrasonic and cardiologic findings. A hemorrhagic transformation of the infarction occurred in 28 patients, eleven within the first week, and 15 within the second. Risks of hemorrhage were correlated with a severe neurological deficit, disturbance of consciousness, large infarction with a mass effect, enhancement of contrast medium in CT (especially if occurring early), involvement of the cortex, and distinct blood/CSF barrier disturbances. Cardiac embolism was a frequent etiology in patients with secondary hemorrhagic infarction, especially when transformation occurred within the first week after stroke. In addition to a heterogeneous pattern of hemorrhage, frank hematoma predominated in those infarcts which underwent early transformation, while those transforming late often showed less hyperdense cortical hemorrhagic changes. Deterioration evident on clinical evaluation was caused by the hemorrhagic transformation in three cases, in each instance within the first week after stroke.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association