Effect of mannitol, nimodipine, and indomethacin singly or in combination on cerebral ischemia in rats.
The effects of mannitol, nimodipine, and indomethacin on ischemic neuronal injury were examined in 45 rats divided equally into nine groups subjected to 10 minutes of forebrain ischemia. Of two control groups, one received maintenance fluids while the other received a normal saline bolus. In the remaining seven groups, mannitol, nimodipine, and indomethacin were administered singly or in combination 5 minutes before forebrain ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, the brains were perfusion-fixed, sectioned coronally into 2.8-mm slices, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Ischemic neurons were directly counted on predetermined regions of standardized serial sections. Considerable amelioration of ischemic injury (ischemic neurons/total neurons) was observed with mannitol (ischemic injury, 7 +/- 5% in the hippocampal CA1/CA2 sectors and 28 +/- 17% in the CA3 sector). This is in contrast to control values of 64 +/- 11% and 80 +/- 6%, respectively, and those obtained in the normal saline group of 70 +/- 10% and 59 +/- 13%, respectively. The beneficial effect with nimodipine reached significance in only the hippocampal CA3 sector (ischemic injury, 35 +/- 21%). Indomethacin showed no significant benefit. Combining the agents resulted in significantly reduced neuronal injury compared with control groups, although the effect was not greater than that achieved with mannitol alone. The degree of ischemic injury was least when all three agents were used in combination (ischemic injury, 12 +/- 12% in the hippocampal CA1/CA2 sectors and 4 +/- 4% in the CA3 sector). Our data support the concept that successfully blocking the ischemic cascade with a single, diversely acting agent or multiple agents will evoke the best beneficial response.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association