Ischemic brain rescue by transvenous perfusion in baboons with venous sinus occlusion.
We studied brain retroperfusion in nine adult baboons. Experiments in four baboons determined techniques and the safety of retroperfusion, and experiments in three baboons determined the ability of retroperfusion to reverse cerebral ischemia. Two baboons died before retroperfusion. Arterial blood was continuously circulated by an external pumping system from one femoral artery into the intracranial sinuses through specially designed balloon-tipped catheters placed percutaneously into the sigmoid sinuses bilaterally. The balloons intermittently occluded the sinuses. Ischemia was produced by occluding the left middle cerebral artery. Standard and computed electroencephalography with topographic mapping monitored the onset and reversal of ischemia. Retroperfusion rate exceeded 50 ml/min with a mean intrasinus pressure increase of 27 (0-149) mm Hg in all seven experiments. Venograms demonstrated complete or partial filling of the superior sagittal sinus in each experiment. Four experiments without ischemia established maximal balloon occlusion cycles, retroperfusion rates, and sinus pressure changes. These four baboons were neurologically normal after retroperfusion; two had normal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Ischemic changes, detected by electroencephalography following middle cerebral artery occlusion, were reversed with retroperfusion in all three ischemia experiments. Autopsies in the seven baboons demonstrated no parenchymal hemorrhage or edema. Our results suggest that further investigation of retroperfusion, and possibly retroinfusion of agents for cerebral protection, is warranted.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association