Hypertension with hemodilution prevents multifocal cerebral hypoperfusion after cardiac arrest in dogs.
Improved neurological outcome with postarrest hypertensive hemodilution in an earlier study could be the result of more homogeneous cerebral perfusion and improved O2 delivery. We explored global, regional, and local cerebral blood flow by stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography and global cerebral metabolism in our dog cardiac arrest model.
Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest of 12.5 minutes was reversed by brief cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by life support to 4 hours postarrest. We compared control group I (n = 5; mean arterial blood pressure, 100 mm Hg; hematocrit, greater than or equal to 35%) with immediately postarrest reflow-promoted group II (n = 5; mean arterial blood pressure, 140-110 mm Hg; hypervolemic hemodilution with plasma substitute to hematocrit, 20-25%).
After initial hyperemia in both groups, during the "delayed hypoperfusion phase" at 1-4 hours postarrest, global cerebral blood flow was 51-60% of baseline in group I versus 85-100% of baseline in group II (p less than 0.01). Percentages of brain tissue voxels with no flow, trickle flow, or low flow were lower (p less than 0.01) and mean regional cerebral blood flow values were higher in group II (p less than 0.01). Global cerebral oxygen uptake recovered to near baseline values at 3-4 hours postarrest in both groups. Postarrest arterial O2 content, however, in hemodiluted group II was 40-50% of that in group I. Thus, the O2 uptake/delivery ratio was increased (worsened) in both groups at 2-4 hours postarrest.
After prolonged cardiac arrest, immediately induced moderate hypertensive hemodilution to hematocrit 20-25% can normalize cerebral blood flow patterns (improve homogeneity of cerebral perfusion), but does not improve cerebral O2 delivery, since the flow benefit is offset by decreased arterial O2 content. Individualized titration of hematocrit or hemodilution with acellular O2 carrying blood substitute (stroma-free hemoglobin or fluorocarbon solution) would be required to improve O2 uptake/delivery ratio.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association