Extracellular alkalinity exacerbates injury of cultured cortical neurons.
We have previously shown that extracellular acidity protects cultured fetal murine neocortical neurons from glutamate toxicity and combined oxygen-glucose deprivation injury, an action at least in part mediated by reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. We now investigate the effect of extracellular alkalinity on both glutamate neurotoxicity and injury due to combined oxygen-glucose deprivation.
The effects of extracellular alkalinity during injury induced by exposure of murine neocortical cultures to glutamate (0.5 mM for 5 minutes) or oxygen-glucose deprivation are characterized morphologically and quantitated by efflux of lactate dehydrogenase from both neurons and glia to the bathing medium. Calcium accumulation is measured with calcium-45.
Moderate extracellular alkalinity is well tolerated by cortical cells but significantly potentiates both glutamate neuronal toxicity and oxygen-glucose deprivation neuronal injury. In contrast, glial viability in the face of combined oxygen-glucose deprivation is little affected by extracellular alkalinity. Increased accumulation of calcium-45 during oxygen-glucose deprivation in alkalotic medium and blockade of this increase by MK-801 is demonstrated.
These observations suggest that alkaline pH can exacerbate excitotoxic neuronal injury, most likely because of increased N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. Metabolic alkalosis of any etiology may sensitize neurons to ischemic injury and potentiate reperfusion injury.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association