Temporal relation of calcium-calmodulin binding and neuronal damage after global ischemia in rats.
This study explores the temporal relation of the severity of ischemia and calcium-calmodulin binding in vulnerable and resistant brain regions in a commonly used model of global ischemia.
Immunohistochemical assay of free calmodulin unbound to calcium and light microscopic histological damage were measured in rats after 5, 10, or 20 minutes of global ischemia.
After 24 hours of reperfusion, decreased calmodulin staining, representing increased calcium influx and calcium-calmodulin binding, correlated with increasing durations of ischemia across all brain regions. Based on a 4-point scale (4, extensive stain; 0, no staining), calmodulin staining after 5 minutes versus 10 minutes of ischemia was 3.2 versus 1.9, respectively (p less than 0.05) and after 10 minutes versus 20 minutes of ischemia was 1.9 versus 1.0, respectively (p less than 0.01). The CA1 region displayed the greatest sensitivity to ischemia. Similar but less dramatic results were seen after 2 hours of reperfusion. After 72 hours of reperfusion, histological damage closely correlated with calcium-calmodulin binding after variable durations of ischemia. A threshold of 10 minutes of ischemia was required to cause calcium-calmodulin binding and irreversible neuronal damage. Surviving neuronal populations showed recovery of calmodulin staining 7 days after ischemia, representing a return of free calmodulin and normal calcium homeostasis.
These correlations between calcium-calmodulin binding, histological damage, and duration of ischemia support the causal role of calcium influx in global ischemic injury and suggest the need for very rapid intervention after ischemia if calcium-mediated damage is to be prevented.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association