Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the apoprotein A-I-C-III gene cluster in control and stroke-prone white and black subjects: racial differences.
The presence of known restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the apoprotein A-I-C-III gene cluster, which encodes their respective apoproteins, was investigated using the restriction enzymes Sac I and Pst I to determine the potential role of genetic variations for stroke risk in an American population.
Ninety-eight subjects (70 white, 28 black subjects), both normal controls with no carotid stenosis and those with carotid stenosis believed at risk for stroke, defined as showing stenosis focally or diffusely at that site, composed the study population.
Sac I polymorphic S2 allele frequency was higher in stroke-risk groups, whereas Pst I polymorphic P2 allele frequency was similar in control and stroke-risk groups. Significantly higher levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein (p less than 0.05) and significantly lower levels of high density lipoprotein (p less than 0.05) were observed in stroke-risk groups with diffuse stenosis. Results of our study with the two racial groups show the following: the frequency of Sac I polymorphism was significantly higher in American black compared with American white subjects (chi 2 = 3.92, p less than 0.05). Among serum lipids, triglycerides were significantly higher in white compared with black subjects (p less than 0.05). In white subjects, carotid artery stenosis was associated with significantly elevated total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (p less than 0.01) but not with Sac I polymorphism. In black subjects the converse was observed, namely, the Sac I polymorphic S2 allele seemed to be associated with carotid bifurcation stenosis but did not reach statistical significance because of the small number of subjects. In addition, Sac I polymorphism did not correlate with any lipid profile. Pst I polymorphism was not associated with any lipid profile or carotid artery stenosis abnormalities.
Our results indicate that carotid artery stenosis identifies white subjects with increased plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein, an atherogenic profile, but not with Sac I polymorphism. These findings suggest that carotid bifurcation stenosis in white subjects is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile but not with apoprotein A-I-C-III restriction fragment length polymorphisms. In black subjects, Sac I polymorphism seems to identify those individuals with significant carotid stenosis, a necessary precursor to atherothrombotic brain infarction, but not those with elevated total cholesterol, elevated low density lipoprotein, and/or reduced high density lipoprotein. These results suggest that Sac I polymorphism may identify black subjects at increased risk for atherothrombotic brain infarctions.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association