Distribution of the 72-kd heat-shock protein as a function of transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
The significance and physiological implications of the expression of the 72-kd heat-shock protein in ischemic tissue are unknown. To enhance our understanding of the relation between ischemic cell damage and 72-kd heat-shock protein expression, we evaluated the cellular expression and the anatomic distribution of 72-kd heat-shock protein in conjunction with the morphological analysis of rat brain, as a function of the duration of a single arterial occlusion.
Adult Wistar rats were subjected to graded transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (for a duration of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and sham; n = 4 per group). Forty-eight hours after reopening the artery, brain tissue sections were analyzed to determine the extent of neuronal damage (hematoxylin and eosin staining), the extent of astrocytic reactivity (immunohistochemistry, using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein), and the distribution of 72-kd heat-shock protein (immunohistochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody to 72-kd heat-shock protein).
We found that 72-kd heat-shock protein was sequentially expressed in morphologically intact neurons, microglia, and endothelial cells with increasing duration of ischemia; 72-kd heat-shock protein immunoreactivity was not detected in astrocytes. The duration of ischemia required to evoke a 72-kd heat-shock protein response in neurons was dependent on the anatomic site and followed a pattern of increasing neuronal sensitivity to ischemic cell damage with duration of ischemia: 72-kd heat-shock protein and neuronal damage were sequentially detected in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus with increasing duration of ischemia. With ischemia of long duration (greater than or equal to 90 minutes), neurons expressing 72-kd heat-shock protein were localized to a zone peripheral to the severely damaged ischemic core.
These studies suggest that 1) the expression of 72-kd heat-shock protein in neurons precedes the development of ischemic cellular alterations detectable by conventional hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy methods; 2) there is a hierarchy of cell types and anatomic sites that express 72-kd heat-shock protein, and this hierarchy reflects cellular and anatomic vulnerability to ischemic cell damage; and 3) 72-kd heat-shock protein induction in neurons bordering a necrotic ischemic core may be the morphological equivalent of the ischemic penumbra.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association