Atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale as risk factors for cryptogenic stroke in patients less than 55 years of age. A study using transesophageal echocardiography.
An association between atrial septal aneurysm and embolic events has been suggested. Atrial septal aneurysm has been shown to be associated with patent foramen ovale and, in some reports, with mitral valve prolapse. These two latter cardiac disorders have been identified as potential risk factors for ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the role of atrial septal aneurysm as an independent risk factor for stroke, especially for cryptogenic stroke.
We studied the prevalence of atrial septal aneurysm, patent foramen ovale, and mitral valve prolapse in 100 consecutive patients < 55 years of age with ischemic stroke who underwent extensive etiological investigations. We compared these results with those in a control group of 50 consecutive patients. The diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale relied on transesophageal echocardiography with a contrast study and that of mitral valve prolapse, on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography.
Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that atrial septal aneurysm (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 14.6; P = .01) and patent foramen ovale (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 10; P = .003) but not mitral valve prolapse were significantly associated with the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. The stroke odds of a patient with both atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale were 33.3 times (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 270) the stroke odds of a patient with neither of these cardiac disorders. For a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of > 10-mm excursion, the stroke odds were approximately 8 times the stroke odds of a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of < 10 mm.
This study shows that atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale are both significantly associated with cryptogenic stroke and that their association has a marked synergistic effect. Atrial septal aneurysms of > 10-mm excursion are associated with a higher risk of stroke.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association