Dynamic computed tomographic imaging of regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume. A clinical pilot study.
The advent of faster computed tomography scanners has evoked considerable interest in using this technology as a more practical method of regional cerebral hemodynamic evaluation than the currently available positron emission and single-photon emission computed tomography. The theoretical concepts have been worked out and validated in the laboratory by several groups. The aim of the present study was the development of a clinically useful system.
Software was developed for dynamic computed tomography-based calculation and color-coded representation of regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume. Normal values, reproducibility, and sensitivity to acetazolamide challenge were established in 13 volunteers. The method was applied to an additional three patients with internal carotid artery occlusion and known decreased vascular reserve capacity as diagnosed by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.
Normal regional cerebral blood flow was determined as 50 +/- 13 ml/100 ml per minute and normal fractional cerebral blood volume as 58 +/- 12 ml/1,000 ml (mean +/- SD). In five volunteers, two examinations were performed within 15 minutes for determination of reproducibility. Intermeasurement variability of hemispheric blood flow and blood volume was determined as +/- 23% and +/- 16%, respectively. Intravenous administration of 1 g acetazolamide resulted on the average in a 75% increase of blood flow and a 65% increase of fractional blood volume. In the patients with decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, baseline fractional blood volume in the ischemic hemispheres was significantly increased. Baseline regional cerebral blood flow in the ischemic territories was overestimated. Reactivity to acetazolamide of both regional blood flow and fractional blood volume was clearly reduced in the ischemic hemispheres.
The present results demonstrate that the method is a simple and effective means of determining regional cerebral blood volume. Spatial resolution is superior to that of the radioactive tracer methods. Hemodynamic evaluation of ischemic conditions can be performed on the basis of increased resting cerebral blood volume and a diminished increase after acetazolamide. Accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements, on the other hand, is affected by abnormal cerebral blood volume, and corresponding adjustments need to be made in pathological conditions.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association