Carotid endarterectomy with transcranial Doppler and electroencephalographic monitoring. A prospective study in 130 operations.
We report the results of combined recording of hemodynamic and thromboembolic phenomena during carotid endarterectomy by means of computerized electroencephalography as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The study focuses on the additional value of transcranial Doppler to detect ischemia during surgery.
Combined monitoring was performed in 130 consecutive operations, using standard anesthesiological, surgical, and neurophysiological procedures.
A reduction of > or = 70% of blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery during cross-clamping was measured in 16 patients. In seven of these cases there were no severe electroencephalographic changes and a shunt was not used, but one of the patients developed a subcortical infarct with slight disability. In 55 patients, 75 episodes of embolization were detected by transcranial Doppler. In one of these, with massive embolization after release of the clamp, an intraoperative stroke occurred without changes on cranial computerized tomography or neurological disability on follow-up. In the other 54 patients, intraoperative embolization did not cause clinical or neuroradiological symptoms. Electroencephalographic changes occurred in only two of the 75 episodes. In addition to the two nondisabling strokes during surgery (1.5%), six strokes occurred within 5 days of operation, including one hemorrhage. There was no significant relation between contralateral carotid occlusion and stroke (p = 0.6).
During carotid endarterectomy, transcranial Doppler immediately provides information about thromboembolism and hemodynamic changes that are not detected by electroencephalography alone. Acoustic feedback from the transcranial Doppler monitoring unit has a direct influence on the surgical technique. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound may be a useful tool in the study and prevention of intraoperative stroke.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association