Contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded real-time sonography. Results of a phase-two study.
Transcranial color-coded real-time sonography has been developed as a promising new bedside procedure to monitor central nervous system parenchymal and vascular pathology; the present study was designed to investigate the potential role of galactose microparticles (SH U 508 A) as a new ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent for transcranial sonography.
Ten patients (four women and six men, 24-63 years of age) with a broad spectrum of central nervous system pathology were investigated by transcranial color-coded real-time sonography in a phase-two clinical study. After conventional ultrasound examination, all patients received a maximum of six injections of 10 ml with 200, 300, or 400 mg/mL SH U 508 A. The intracranial vessels were scanned by color flow imaging in the axial and coronal planes through a transtemporal acoustic bone window; in addition, the vertebrobasilar system was followed through the foramen magnum.
SH U 508 A was well tolerated without side effects. In axial and coronal scans, the application of SH U 508 A resulted in detection of peripheral branches of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries, as well as the posterior communicating and superior cerebellar arteries. In addition, the deep cerebral veins (i.e., inferior sagittal sinus, internal cerebral veins, great cerebral vein of Galen, straight sinus, and the confluence sinuum) were revealed. The transforaminal approach led to detection of the main infratentorial branches (anterior inferior, posterior inferior, and superior cerebellar arteries). One patient could not be insonated without contrast, but after SH U 508 A the trunks of the large intracranial arteries were detected. No obvious changes in the ultrasound pattern of the central nervous system parenchyma were observed.
These preliminary data indicate that the use of a transpulmonary ultrasound contrast agent (SH U 508 A) may substantially broaden the spectrum and potential diagnostic utility of transcranial ultrasound by allowing detection of supratentorial peripheral central nervous system arteries, deep cerebral veins, and (through the foramen magnum) the entire vertebrobasilar system, including the cerebellar arteries.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association