Modification of hypoxia-induced injury in cultured rat astrocytes by high levels of glucose.
Preexisting hyperglycemia exacerbates central nervous system injury after transient global and focal cerebral ischemia. Increased anaerobic metabolism with resultant lactic acidosis has been shown to cause the hyperglycemic, neuronal injury. The contribution of astrocytes in producing lactic acidosis under hyperglycemic/ischemic conditions is unclear, whereas the protective role of astrocytes in ischemic-induced neuronal injury has been documented. The ability of astrocytes to maintain energy status and ion homeostasis under hyperglycemic conditions could ultimately reduce neuronal injury. Therefore, we determined the effects of increased glucose concentrations on glucose utilization, lactate production, extracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate concentrations in hypoxia-treated astrocyte cultures.
Primary astrocytes were prepared from neonatal rat cerebral cortices. After 35 days in vitro, cultures were incubated with 0-60 mmol/L glucose and subjected to hypoxic conditions at 95% N2/5% CO2 for 24 hours. In addition, under high-glucose conditions (30 mmol/L), astrocytes were exposed to up to 72 hours of hypoxia. Determination of lactate dehydrogenase efflux, adenosine triphosphate concentrations, and extracellular lactate concentrations defined astrocyte status. Equiosmolar levels of mannitol were added in place of high glucose concentrations to distinguish hyperosmotic effect.
When physiological concentrations of glucose (7.5 mmol/L) or lower concentrations were used, significant cell damage occurred with 24 hours of hypoxia, as determined by increased efflux of lactate dehydrogenase and loss of cell protein. When higher glucose concentrations (15-60 mmol/L) were used, efflux of lactate dehydrogenase was similar to that observed in normoxic cultures, despite an increased utilization of glucose. Lactate concentrations in the media at low or normal glucose concentrations exceeded normoxic levels, but higher glucose concentrations (15-30 mmol/L) failed to increase lactate levels further. Values of adenosine triphosphate for hypoxic astrocytes treated with high glucose concentrations were significantly higher than those of astrocytes with zero or low glucose levels. In cultures exposed to hypoxia and high glucose levels (30 mmol/L), no cellular injury was observed before 48 hours of hypoxia. Lactate concentrations in the media increased during the first 24 hours of hypoxia and reached steady state. The pH of the media decreased to 6.4 after 24 hours and 5.5 at 48 hours. The latter pH was concomitant with a marked increase in extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hyperosmotic mannitol failed to protect cultured astrocytes against hypoxia.
Hypoxic injury to mature astrocytes was reduced by the presence of 15-60 mmol/L glucose in the medium during 24-30 hours of hypoxia. Injury occurred when the pH of the medium was < 5.5. This protection was not afforded by the hyperosmotic effect of high glucose concentrations, nor was the hypoxic injury at later time periods with 30 mmol/L glucose mediated solely by lactate accumulation.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association