The effect of a new calcium antagonist, TA3090 (clentiazem), on experimental transient focal cerebral ischemia in cats.
TA3090 (Clentiazem) has been shown to have cerebrovascular protective properties in three experimental studies. An in vivo investigation was undertaken to determine its effects on pial arteries and cerebral blood flow and its therapeutic value in transient focal cerebral ischemia.
This experiment was divided into two protocols. In the first, 200 or 400 micrograms/kg per hour TA3090 was administered continuously for 3 hours in cats without ischemic insult (n = 6 for each group). The effects on pial arteries and cerebral blood flow were estimated. In the second protocol, 400 micrograms/kg per hour TA3090 (treated group, n = 14) or physiological saline (control group, n = 10) was administered 5 minutes before 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion in cats. The effects on the pial arteries and cerebral blood flow were observed continuously, followed by autoradiography for a quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow 5 hours after middle cerebral artery recirculation. The volumes of the cerebral edema and infarct were estimated by planimetry from cerebral preparations made for histological examination.
Pial arteries dilated by up to approximately 10% in the 400-micrograms group and 3% in the 200-micrograms group 30 minutes after administration of TA3090. Increases in cerebral blood flow of about 10% in the 400-micrograms group and 2% in the 200-micrograms group were demonstrated with laser Doppler flowmetry. In the second protocol, dilatation of pial arteries was significantly smaller during and after the ischemic insult in the treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Cerebral blood flow decreased less significantly during ischemia (p < 0.01 at the end of ischemia) and increased less significantly after ischemia (p < 0.01 at the end) in the treated group compared with the control group. Autoradiography showed a more remarkable increase in cerebral blood flow due to luxury perfusion in the cerebral cortex, which was mainly perfused by the middle cerebral artery on the affected side in the control group (p < 0.01). Cerebral blood flow in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and caudate nucleus on the contralateral side of the treated group increased by about 20% more than that of the control group (p < 0.05). Cerebral edema and infarction were much smaller in the treated group than in the control group (p < 0.01).
1) TA3090 dilates pial arteries and increases cerebral blood flow in normal brain regions in a dose-response fashion; 2) in ischemic regions compared with those in untreated animals, TA3090 results in a lesser reduction of cerebral blood flow during ischemia and in a lesser degree of hyperemia during reperfusion; 3) TA3090 is associated with less pial artery dilatation during ischemia, presumably due to improved collateral flow; and 4) the improved hemodynamic state with TA3090 is associated with significant reduction of cerebral edema and infarct size.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association