Neurovascular manifestations of heritable connective tissue disorders. A review.
Heritable disorders of connective tissue are recognized in a small minority of patients with neurovascular diseases. In this report, we review the neurovascular manifestations of four heritable connective tissue disorders: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum, as well as two other systemic disorders with potential vascular manifestations: neurofibromatosis and polycystic kidney disease.
Typical neurovascular complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are carotid-cavernous fistulae, intracranial aneurysms, and cervical artery dissections. Arterial dissections and intracranial aneurysms cause the majority of neurovascular symptoms in Marfan's syndrome. Neurovascular disease is uncommon in osteogenesis imperfecta, although carotid-cavernous fistulae and vertebral artery dissections have been reported. Neurovascular disease in pseudoxanthoma elasticum is characterized by intracranial aneurysms and cerebral ischemia caused by premature arterial occlusive disease. Intracranial occlusive arterial disease is the most common neurovascular manifestation of neurofibromatosis, followed by cervical arteriovenous fistulae and aneurysms and intracranial aneurysms. Intracranial aneurysms are the hallmark of polycystic kidney disease.
Recognition of an underlying generalized connective tissue disorder may be of considerable importance, although marked phenotypic heterogeneity often complicates the diagnosis of these disorders. Conversely, the association of certain neurovascular anomalies with generalized connective tissue disorders and recognition of their basic molecular defect may offer clues to the etiology and pathogenesis of these neurovascular diseases in general.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association