Relations between coagulation profiles, lipid profiles, and other risk factors with risk of first-ever ischemic stroke: a novel case-control study
Background and objectives: Several hemostatic factors and lipid parameters are associated with risk of coronary heart disease. Few studies have investigated the relations between these factors and risk of ischemic stroke. The major aim of this study was to estimate the risks of hypercoagulability, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia in acquiring first-ever ischemic stroke. An ancillary aim was to observe changes including biochemical and coagulation profiles in first-ever ischemic stroke inpatients from admission to 3 months later. Methods: One hundred and forty-four first-ever ischemic stroke inpatients and two types of controls (including 142 stable ischemic stroke outpatients and 181 non-stroke outpatients) were recruited from 1996 to 1999. Uric acid and glucose levels, status of hypertension, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and atrial fibrillation (AF), and coagulation (clotting times, fibrinogen, factor VIIc, and factor VIIIc) and lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C) profiles were obtained. Results: The proportions of cases with elevated fibrinogen and factor VIIIc from admission to 3 months later were significantly higher than those of non-stroke controls, either with or without anticoagulants. The proportions of cases with decreased HDL-C and hyperglycemia were also significantly higher than those of non-stroke controls. After adjusting for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, elevated fibrinogen (OR=3.21; p=0.0071), hyperglycemia (OR=2.65; p=0.0076), hypertension (OR=1.97; p=0.0424), history of LVH (OR=3.15; p=0.0010), and carotid plaque states (OR=2.27; p=0.0185) were significantly associated with risk of first-ever ischemic stroke. Elevated factor VIIIc was at borderline significance level (OR=2.12; p=0.0722). Conclusion: Hypertension, hyperglycemia, LVH and positive carotid plaque were associated with risk of first-ever ischemic stroke. Elevated fibrinogen and factor VIIIc were also associated with first-ever ischemic stroke, indicating a role of coagulation profiles in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke.