The Stroke–Thrombolytic Predictive Instrument
A Predictive Instrument for Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke
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Background and Purpose— Many patients with ischemic stroke eligible for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are not treated in part because of the risks and benefits perceived by treating physicians. Therefore, we aimed to develop a Stroke-Thrombolytic Predictive Instrument (TPI) to aid physicians considering thrombolysis for stroke.
Methods— Using data from 5 major randomized clinical trials (n=2184) testing rt-PA in the 0- to 6-hour window, we developed logistic regression equations using clinical variables as potential predictors of a good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤1) and of a catastrophic outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥5), with and without rt-PA. The models were internally validated using bootstrap re-sampling.
Results— To predict good outcome, in addition to rt-PA treatment, 7 variables significantly affected prognosis and/or the treatment-effect of rt-PA: age, diabetes, stroke severity, sex, previous stroke, systolic blood pressure, and time from symptom onset. To predict catastrophic outcome, only age, stroke severity, and serum glucose were significant; rt-PA treatment was not. For patients treated within 3 hours, the median predicted probability of a good outcome with rt-PA was 42.9% (interquartile range [IQR]=18.6% to 64.7%) versus 25.3% (IQR=9.8% to 46.2%) without rt-PA; the median predicted absolute benefit was 12.5% (IQR=5.1% to 21.0%). The median probability for a catastrophic outcome, with or without, rt-PA was 15.2% (IQR=8.0% to 31.2%). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve was 0.788 for the model predicting good outcome and 0.775 for the model predicting bad outcome.
Conclusions— The Stroke-TPI predicts good and bad functional outcomes with and without thrombolysis. Incorporated into a usable tool, it may assist in decision-making.
- acute care
- acute Rx
- acute stroke
- clinical decision support
- emergency medicine
- predictive models
- thrombolytic Rx
- Received March 1, 2006.
- Revision received July 14, 2006.
- Accepted August 2, 2006.