Evidence for the Direct Effect of Adrenergic Drugs on the Cerebral Vascular Bed of the Unanesthetized Goat
Despite considerable research, the question of whether adrenergic drugs exert direct effects on the cerebral circulation has remained unresolved. With the development of a method for monitoring continuously the entire blood flow to one hemisphere in the unanesthetized goat, we have been able to study this problem directly. The effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol administered by close intra-arterial injection were investigated in 15 goats in which an electromagnetic flowmeter had been implanted previously on the internal maxillary artery, which, in this animal, provides the sole blood supply to a hemisphere. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine (0.1 to 5.0 µg) produced dose-dependent reductions in cerebral blood flow, a decrease of 55 ± 3% (SEM) occurring with the highest dose. Alpha receptor blockade of the ipsilateral hemisphere with phenoxybenzamine totally or partially abolished this cerebral vasoconstriction. Isoproterenol (0.01 to 1.0 µg) produced dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow, an increment of 75 ± 6% occurring with the highest dose. Beta blockade with propranolol totally or partially abolished the cerebral vasodilation induced by isoproterenol. Thus, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol exert powerful direct effects on the cerebral circulation of the unanesthetized goat, and these effects appear to be mediated by alpha and beta receptors.
- cerebral blood flow
- cerebral vascular resistance
- alpha adrenergic receptors
- beta adrenergic receptors
- electromagnetic flowmeter
- © 1973 American Heart Association, Inc.