Abstract 200: CD40 Signaling Mediates Postischemic Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, And Tissue Injury Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia
Rationale: Although CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) signaling has been implicated in clinical and experimental ischemic strokes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear.
Objective: We investigated how CD40 participates in the cellular and molecular events underlying the postischemic inflammation and oxidative stress that may contribute to the tissue damage during cerebral ischemia.
Methods and Results: Wild-type (WT, n=164) and CD40 knockout mice (n=132) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 60 minutes) followed by reperfusion. We found that ischemia/reperfusion induced CD40 expression in the brain in a time-dependent manner, primarily localized to the microvascular endothelial cells in the early phase (6h) and then to the activated microglia in the later time (24h). The adhesion and infiltration of neutrophils as well as the activation and expansion of microglia induced by ischemia/reperfusion were inhibited in CD40-/- mice, which were time-dependently correlated with suppressing nuclear factor-kB activation and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα) and adhesion molecules (E- and P-selectin, ICAM-1,MCP-1). Infarct volumes and mortality were reduced in CD40-/- mice at 72h after ischemia/reperfusion. Treatment with an inhibitor of either NADPH oxidase or COX-2, the known enzymes that contributes to the tissue damage, reduced ischemic brain injury in wild-type mice, but not in CD40-/- mice. In contrast, treatment with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) further reduced tissue injury in CD40-/- mice. Consistently, ischemia/reperfusion-induced upregulation of NADPH oxidase (Nox2, and Nox4) and COX-2, but not iNOS, were attenuated in CD40-/- mice.
Conclusions: The findings unveil an essential role for CD40 in the regulation of early molecular and cellular events leading to postischemic inflammation. Inhibition of CD40 signaling may be a valuable therapeutic approach to counteract the deleterious effects of postischemic inflammation.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.