Abstract 25: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor - δ Agonist GW501516 Restores Bioavailability Of Tetrahydrobiopterin And Prevents Cerebral Vascular Dysfunction In Tg2576 Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein
Objectives- Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction precedes cerebral β-amyloid deposits in human Alzheimer’s disease as well as in transgenic mouse models expressing mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP). In the present study, we hypothesized that uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) caused by loss of its essential co-factor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), in cerebral arteries and microvessels contributes, in part, to oxidative stress and cerebral vascular dysfunction in a APP transgenic mouse (Tg2576) that express the Swedish double mutation of human APP. In addition, we examined whether treatment with Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-δ (PPARδ) activator - GW501516 restores bioavailability of BH4 and reverses oxidative stress in APP Tg2576 mice.
Methods- APP Tg2576 mice (4-5 months old) were treated with GW501516, a selective PPARδ activator (2 mg/kg/day, po, 14 days). Following treatment, cerebral arteries and microvessels were obtained. Biopterin levels, enzymatic activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I) and superoxide production were measured by HPLC and protein expression was studied by Western blotting.
Results- Cerebral arteries and microvessels demonstrated increased expression of eNOS, while the bioavailability of its essential co-factor BH4 was significantly reduced, suggestive of eNOS uncoupling in APP Tg2576 mice. Furthermore, expressions of catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were decreased, while superoxide production was increased (P<0.01, n=6) in cerebral microvessels of APP Tg2576 mice. Treatment with GW501516 restored the BH4/BH2 ratio in cerebral arteries and microvessels of APP Tg2576 mice (P<0.05, n-7-8), while the enzymatic activity of GTPCH-I remained unchanged (P>0.05, n=6). PPARδ activation also prevented the attenuation in expressions of MnSOD and catalase, and inhibited the increased superoxide production (P<0.05, n=6) in cerebral arteries and microvessels of APP Tg2576 mice. Interestingly, PPARδ activation significantly inhibited the over-expression of APP in cerebral microvessels obtained from APP Tg2576 mice (P<0.001, n=4).
Conclusion- Our results suggest that endothelial dysfunction in APP Tg2576 mice may be caused, in part, by reduced bioavailability of BH4 and uncoupling of eNOS. Treatment of APP Tg2576 mice with PPARδ agonist GW501516 exerted cerebral vascular protection by multiple mechanisms: (a) by inhibiting eNOS uncoupling via increased expressions of MnSOD and catalase, as well as, (b) by attenuating the increased expression of APP in the cerebral microvessels of APP Tg2576 mice.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.