Abstract 2600: Refinement of the MR Diffusion-perfusion Mismatch Concept for Thrombolytic Patient Selection: Insights from the Desmoteplase In Acute Stroke Trials
The DIAS-2 study was the only large, randomized intravenous thrombolytic trial that selected patients based on the presence of ischemic penumbra. However, DIAS-2 did not confirm the positive findings of the smaller DEDAS and DIAS trials, which also used penumbral selection. Therefore a reevaluation of the penumbra selection strategy is warranted. In post-hoc analyses we assessed the relationships of MRI-measured lesion volumes to clinical measures in DIAS-2, and the relationships of the presence and size of the diffusion-perfusion mismatch to the clinical effect of desmoteplase in DIAS-2 (MRI-selected patients) and in pooled data from MRI-selected 90- and 125-μg/kg dose groups in DIAS, DEDAS, and DIAS-2. In DIAS-2, lesion volumes correlated with NIHSS at both baseline and final time points (P<0·0001), and lesion growth was inversely related to good clinical outcome (P=0.004). In the pooled analysis, treatment was associated with 47% clinical response rate in desmoteplase (n=143) versus 34% in placebo (n=73; P=0.08). For both the pooled sample and for DIAS-2, increasing the minimum baseline mismatch volume (MMV) for inclusion increased the desmoteplase effect size, preferentially decreasing the placebo-response rate. There was a trend of statistically significant differences in effect size in ≤60 mL versus >60 mL baseline mismatch subgroups (P=0.083). The odds ratio for good clinical response between desmoteplase and placebo treatment was 2.83 (95% CI, 1.16-6.94, P=0.023) for a MMV >60 mL. Increasing the minimum NIHSS for inclusion did not affect treatment effect size. Pooled across all desmoteplase trials, penumbral selection by MRI diffusion-perfusion mismatch favored desmoteplase clinical benefit, especially for larger MMV. Based on these results, a three-fold reduction in future trial sample size requirements would be achieved using a criterion of baseline MMV >60 mL over any visible mismatch. These results support a modified diffusion-perfusion mismatch hypothesis for patient selection in later-time-window thrombolytic trials.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.