Abstract 3543: Imaging Correlates of Early Neurologic Deterioration among Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background: Early neurologic deterioration (END) occurs commonly in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients being transported by EMS ambulances, but the imaging correlates of END have not been previously delineated.
Methods: We analyzed consecutive ICH patients in the Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium (FAST-MAG) Trial, a phase 3, multicenter of paramedic-initiated magnesium sulfate vs. placebo for stroke patients presenting within 2 hours of symptom onset. END was defined as a 2-point or greater decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from paramedic evaluation to ED evaluation. Baseline imaging studies were independently analyzed by 2 neurologists for ICH location, volume, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), heterogeneity (defined as >20 point difference in Hounsfield units), irregular hematoma borders, multilobulated appearance, and substantial edema (defined as >0.5cm thickness). Leukoaraiosis was graded using the Fazekas scale for periventricular and deep white matter changes (0-3 for each).
Results: Among 127 patients, mean age was 66 (SD 14) years, 34% were women, 35% were Hispanic ethnicity, 83% white, and 84% had a history of HTN. Patients were evaluated by paramedics a median of 23 (IQR 16, 39) minutes after last known well time (LKWT). At that time, the median GCS was 15 (IQR 15-15) and mean SBP/DBP was 177/95 (SD 34/22). Initial post-arrival brain imaging was performed a median of 94 (IQR 77, 117) min after LKWT. Post-arrival study GCS scores were obtained at a median of 108 (IQR 70, 144) min after LWKT. Early neurologic deterioration occurred in 37 (29%) patients. Among these patients, median first ED GCS was 3 (IQR 3-10). On first imaging, compared with neurologically stable patients, END patients had larger hematoma volume (33 cc v 16 cc, p<0.0001), and more frequent presence of intraventricular extension (45% v 20%, p=0.003), midline shift (58% v 22%), substantial edema (54% v 26%, p=0.038), heterogeneous density (50% v 22%, p=0.006), multilobulated appearance (44% v 18%, p=0.002), and irregular border (39% v 14%, p=0.010). Leukoaraiosis and cortical v subcortical location did not affect rates of END. In multivariate analysis, hematoma volume and presence of IVH were imaging findings independently associated with early neurologic deterioration.
Conclusions: About 3 in 10 patients with hyperacute ICH neurologically deteriorate during the prehospital and early emergency department course, often before neuroimaging is obtained. Patients with early neurologic deterioration have larger hematoma volume and occurrence of IVH on initial imaging. These findings suggest hematoma expansion prior to ED arrival drives early neurologic deterioration in ICH and emphasize the need for prehospital interventions.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.