Abstract 3879: Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm and Cerebral Infarct do not significantly contribute to In-Hospital Mortality after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Background:The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery suggested that delayed cerebral vasospasm is a significant contributor to mortality (at 6 months) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the Cincinnati population based study did not find cerebral vasospasm to be a significant contributor to short-term mortality.
Methods: We reviewed 350 consecutive non-traumatic SAH patients who were hospitalized at our institution from August 1, 2006 to June 30, 2010. Data were collected on demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, presence of cerebral infarct, symptomatic vasospasm, and in-hospital mortality. Symptomatic vasospasm was defined as cerebral vasospasm that required intra-arterial therapy (pharmacologic vasodilators or angioplasty). Cerebral infarct was defined as any new radiographic infarct seen on CT or MRI (of any cause).
Results: Among 350 patients with non-traumatic SAH, the mean age was 56.7 years (range, 21.5 to 89.1) and 68% were aneurysmal. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 20.2% (71 patients). The causes of in-hospital mortality were withdrawal of support in 53 (75%), brain death in 14 (20%), and cardiopulmonary death in 4 (8%). The mean time to death was 8.1 (range 0 to 31) days, with 36% of deaths occurring within the first 2 days of hospitalization. Among patients with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm or cerebral infarct , 19% (26/139) died. In univariate and multivariate analyses, symptomatic cerebral vasospasm and cerebral infarct were not associated with in-hospital mortality. When the analysis was restricted to patients with aneurysmal SAH, cerebral vasospasm and cerebral infarct were still not predictive of in-hospital mortality. In multivariable analysis, the variables most associated with in-hospital mortality were Hunt and Hess score (HH) (p <0.0001), rebleed (p <0.0001), and age ≥ 80 (p 0.0017).
Conclusions: In-hospital mortality after SAH is associated with initial severity of hemorrhage, rebleeding, and age. Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm and cerebral infarct were not significant contributors of overall in-hospital mortality, and approximately one-third of in-hospital mortality after SAH occurs within the first 2 days of hospitalization. By design, studies that exclude patients with severe SAH tend to over-estimate the contribution of cerebral vasospasm on short-term mortality.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.