Abstract 4: Angiographic Predictors of Stroke after Carotid Artery Stenting - A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of 1070 Patients in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial
Background Carotid artery stent (CAS) placement may be used as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy in selected patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Perhaps because stroke is an uncommon event after CAS, the angiographic predictors of stroke have been incompletely described.
Methods A total of 1070 catheter-based angiograms were centrally reviewed in patients undergoing CAS enrolled in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST). Of these patients, 43 (4%) experienced periprocedural stroke. Angiograms were reviewed using qualitative and quantitative methodology before and after CAS. Reviews were done blinded to patient outcomes and strokes were adjudicated by a central committee blinded to results of angiography. The view showing the greatest carotid stenosis severity was selected. Extreme tortuosity was defined as 2 severe bends >90 degrees (maximum angulation/20 mm segment) beyond the target lesion, sequential lesions as lesions separated by ≥10 mm, and narrow mouth ulcer as a discrete area of contrast extension beyond the normal arterial lumen with a narrow inlet into the ulceration.
Results The internal carotid artery reference diameter was 4.2 ± 0.8 mm, the minimal lumen diameter was 1.1 ± 0.6 mm, and the baseline % diameter stenosis was 74.1 ± 11.6%. There were no differences in vessel size or severity of the stenosis in patients with and without stroke. Morphologic predictors significantly related to the risk of subsequent stroke are listed in the Table. Calcification, lesion eccentricity, baseline flow, and distance from the bifurcation were not predictive of periprocedural stroke (p > 0.05).
Conclusion In CREST, four angiographic variables were found to increase risk for stroke during and within 30 days after CAS: severe distal tortuosity, sequential lesions, lesion length > 20 mm, and narrow mouth ulcer. Angiographic characteristics beyond percent stenosis may help in patient selection in terms of best revascularization option.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.