Abstract 156: SAMMPRIS Angiography Discloses Hemodynamic Effects of Intracranial Stenosis: Computational Fluid Dynamics of Fractional Flow
Background: Pressure gradients across an intracranial stenosis, or fractional flow (FF), may identify the hemodynamic significance of symptomatic lesions. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations on 3D morphology of such lesions can calculate these pressure gradients and model effects of systemic physiology interacting with these lesions, such as hypotension and induced hypertension. We studied SAMMPRIS angiography to calculate FF across symptomatic intracranial stenoses and modeled the downstream effect of systemic blood pressure (BP) fluctuations.
Methods: Conventional angiography of symptomatic intracranial stenoses in the SAMMPRIS trial was converted from biplanar images to a 3D geometric mesh. CFD simulations were conducted with Ansys CFX on a Cray supercomputer to calculate FF derived from distal/proximal pressure gradients for each of 3 inflow conditions: normal BP (120/80 mm Hg), hypotension (90/60 mm Hg) and hypertension (180/120 mm Hg). Abnormal FF was defined as ≤ 0.8 during diastole to define hemodynamic significance of a stenosis.
Results: 407 patients with 70-99% symptomatic stenosis had conventional angiography with biplanar views available for 3D reconstruction in 249, and CFD simulations in 188 (25 VA, 45 BA, 32 ICA, 86 MCA). Under simulated normal inflow conditions (120/80 mm Hg), only 76/188 (40%) cases had low FF.
During simulated hypertension, FF improved to normal in 10/188 (5%) cases. Simulated hypotension caused FF to worsen from normal in 12/188 (6%) cases. Other hemodynamic parameters including shear stress could also be calculated and visually depicted in all cases.
Conclusions: CFD and hemodynamic modeling of FF can be retrospectively performed after 3D conversion of biplanar angiogram views. FF estimates predict that only 40% of severe (70-99%) symptomatic intracranial stenoses are hemodynamically significant. Systemic BP fluctuations can be modeled during phases of the cardiac cycle to show downstream flow changes.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.