Abstract 50: Impact of Acute Cocaine use on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Objective: To analyze the impact of acute cocaine use on presentation and outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
Background: Acute cocaine use has been temporally associated with aSAH but there are varying reports describing how it affects patient presentation, complications and outcomes.
Design/Methods: Data of aSAH patients admitted to our institution between 1991-2009 were reviewed to determine which patients had used cocaine within 72 hours of aSAH based on positive urine toxicology or a history of cocaine use within 72 hours (C). These patients were then compared with aSAH patients without recent cocaine exposure (NC) in relation to their clinical and radiological presentations, complications such as DIND (delayed ischemic neurological deficit defined by vasospasm mediated cerebral infarcts) and outcomes defined by hospital mortality.
Results: Data of 1134 patients were reviewed; aSAH in142 patients (12.5%) was associated with cocaine use. Cocaine users were more likely to be younger (mean age: C:49, NC:53, p0.05), admission GCS 0.05), associated IVH (C:56%, NC:51%, p>0.05) or hydrocephalus on admission CT (C:49%; NC:52%, p> 0.05). Cocaine users were more likely to have vasospasm related infarcts when compared to non-cocaine users (C:22%; NC:16%, p<0.05) but after correcting for other factors impacting vasospasm, cocaine use was not independently associated with DIND. Cocaine users had higher rates of aneurysm re-rupture (C:7.7%, NC:2.7%, p0.004). Cocaine users were less likely to survive hospitalization compared to non-users following univariate analysis (Mortality: C:26%, NC:17%, p< 0.05); the adjusted odds of hospital mortality were 2.9 times higher among cocaine users following multivariate analysis (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Acute cocaine use was associated with a higher risk of aneurysm re-rupture and hospital mortality following aSAH. The various mechanisms for the nearly threefold increased odds of death associated with cocaine use warrants further investigation.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.