Abstract TMP49: Yield of Diagnostic Evaluation in Major Stroke Phenoytypes
Background: Considerable disagreement exists among experts regarding the appropriate extent of diagnostic testing after ischemic stroke (IS). Evidence-based data guiding stroke evaluation for individual patients according to the underlying phenotype are unknown. We sought to determine the yield of cardiac and arterial evaluations for identifying an alternative major stroke etiology in patients with a given phenotype in the NINDS Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN).
Methods: SiGN is a consortium of IS studies at 22 US and European sites aiming to identify stroke susceptibility genes. Adjudicators certified in Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system determined major etiologic stroke phenotypes based on chart review. All diagnostic data entered into the CCS software were stored in a confidential database. We determined the probability of identifying an alternative major abnormality based on cardiac (history, EKG, echocardiography) and arterial [intracranial (IC), extracranial (EC)] evaluations in 3 stroke phenotypes: lacunar infarct (LI), large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), and cardiac embolism (CE). Proportions of alternative major etiologies were calculated in patients with complete evaluations in each phenotype.
Results: The analyses included 15720 patients. Among these, 2299 had phenotypic subtype of LI (1660 with cardiac and 1691 with arterial evaluations); 4228 had CE (2451 with arterial evaluation); and 2613 had LAA (2047 with cardiac evaluation). Cardiac evaluation revealed a major cardiac source of embolism in 12.3% of patients with LI and 20.3% with LAA. Echocardiography demonstrated an additional major structural cardiac source not seen by history/examination/EKG in 1.9% and 1.6% in LI and LAA respectively. Arterial evaluation led to the identification of ≥50%ipsilateral stenosis in 13.5% (IC: 8.9%, EC: 5.8%) of patients with LI and 17% (IC: 8.1%, EC: 11.3%) of those with CE. In LI patients with complete cardiac and vascular evaluations, 24.1% had an alternative major stroke etiology.
Conclusions: A considerable proportion of IS patients with LI, LAA, and CE harbor an alternative major etiology. In the future, these results can be used to generate evidence-based and cost-effective evaluation and management strategies.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.