Abstract WP262: Therapeutically Targeting TNFa-S1P Signaling Restores Microvascular Reactivity after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by an initial hemorrhagic and ischemic brain injury followed by delayed macro- and microvascular constriction. Large-artery vasospasm and enhanced microcirculatory myogenic tone may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia. Although this implies that therapeutic interventions must specifically correct the SAH-induced myogenic tone enhancement, current therapeutic approaches non-selectively interfere with vasoconstriction and risk disrupting cerebral autoregulation. This may explain why most interventions do not improve clinical outcome. This study identifies the molecular basis for exacerbated cerebrovascular constriction and validates new targets for SAH treatment.
Methods: Wild-type, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) knockout, sphingosine-1-kinase (Sphk1) knockout and inducible, smooth muscle cell-targeted TNFα knockout mice were used. SAH was created by injection of 80 μl of arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. Myogenic tone in the olfactory artery was assessed with a myograph system. Standard procedures for fluorescent immunolocalization, Western blotting and assessment of apoptosis were used.
Results: SAH increased myogenic tone and vascular wall TNFα expression, without enhancing overall vascular contractility in response to phenylephrine. Knockout of TNFα globally or smooth muscle cell-specifically prevented SAH-induced increased myogenic tone. Inhibition of TNFα-shedding (TAPI, 50 μmol/L) or receptor-binding (etanercept, 10 mg/ml) eliminated SAH-mediated myogenic tone augmentation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein expression was down-regulated in cerebral arteries after SAH, which was abolished by antagonism of TNFα. Genetic mouse models confirmed that S1P signaling mediates the myogenic tone augmentation in SAH. Finally, disrupting TNFα signaling attenuated neuronal apoptosis in SAH animals.
Conclusion: We identify a novel smooth muscle cell autocrine/paracrine signaling network that augments myogenic tone in SAH. It links TNFα, CFTR and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. Targeting TNFα and the S1P2 receptor subtype are potential therapeutic options to improve clinical outcome in SAH.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.