Abstract WP304: Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Rapidly Reverses Coagulopathy but does not Alter Mortality in Warfarin Intracerebral Hemorrhage
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH) remains the most lethal form of iatrogenic stroke. Conventional therapy with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and intravenous vitamin K takes up to 30 hrs to normalize the international normalized ratio (INR). Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) does not require cross-match and is fast acting. We hypothesized that PCC can rapidly reverse coagulopathy and reduce mortality in wICH.
Methods: We identified 130 consecutive adult wICH patients over five years from a prospectively collected database. 33 patients were excluded for death or withdrawal of care within 48 hours of admission and 8 patients were excluded for antecedent head trauma, leaving 89 patients for analysis. Forty patients received FFP and vitamin K (conventional therapy) and 49 received PCC in addition to conventional therapy. We compared 6-month mortality, time to INR normalization, quantity of FFP transfused, and thromboembolic complication rates between the two groups. We used logistic regression to adjust for important confounders.
Results: PCC-treated and conventional therapy patients had similar distributions of age, sex, co-morbidities, ICH location, initial blood pressure and INR. PCC-treated patients had a higher incidence of intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH) (67% vs 33%). PCC-treated patients required less FFP (mean 6.8 units vs 3.3 units, p<0.0001) and had faster time to INR normalization (mean 3.8 hrs vs 9.8 hrs, p<0.0001). Incidence of ICH expansion was low in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (p=0.236) or troponin elevation (p=0.573). There was no significant difference in 6-month mortality (p=0.437) after adjusting for age, ICH location, ICH volume, and presence of IVH.
Conclusions: PCC use in wICH was associated with shorter time to INR normalization and reduced FFP transfusion but was not associated with 6-month mortality in this cohort. There was no difference in thromboembolic complication rates between PCC-treated and FFP and vitamin K treated patients. Prospective trials of PCC are necessary to determine if its use can improve morbidity and mortality in wICH and to identify potential subgroups of wICH patients who may benefit from PCC.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.