Abstract WP409: Hematoma Expansion After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Children
Objective: Hematoma expansion and its predictors like the “spot sign” are important research areas in adults with primary (hypertensive) intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but are rarely studied in secondary ICH. At one center, in adults with ICH due to brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), aneurysm, or tumor, significant hematoma expansion (>33%) occurred in 6/30 (20%) within 24 hours. In children, the frequency of hematoma expansion and the appropriate timing of follow-up neuroimaging are unknown. We assessed the frequency and extent of hematoma expansion in children with non-traumatic ICH.
Methods: From 2007 to 2012, 73 children with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in a three-center prospective study (≥37 weeks gestation-17 years). Inclusion for this sub-study: 2 head CTs obtained for clinical indications within 48 hours after presentation with ICH (28 children). Exclusion: Surgical evacuation of hematoma before 2nd CT was obtained (2 children), IVH only (7 children), neonates <29 days old (20 children). Hematoma volume was assessed via manual volumetric analysis.
Results: Of 73 children, 25 (34%) met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Median age was 9.0 years, interquartile range (IQR) 2.1-14.1. Median time from symptom onset to first CT was 9.4 hours (IQR 4.5-20). ICH was due to coagulopathy or vascular cause in 22/25 children (88%). Median baseline ICH volume was 22.2mL (range 2-86mL). Hematoma expansion occurred in 7/25 (28%) with 2 head CTs. Median ICH volume expansion was 4mL (range 0.1-12mL), 32% (range 2-58%) of baseline ICH volume. Three had significant (>33%) expansion; all had coagulopathy or vascular etiologies of ICH. As expected, children with 2 head CTs had larger baseline ICH volumes (p=0.05) and were more likely to receive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) (p=0.001) compared to children with ICH who had fewer than 2 head CTs within 48 hours.
Conclusion: Hematoma expansion occurred in 28% of children with clinical concern for hematoma growth and was >33% in 12%. Repeat CT should be considered in those with large ICH and increased ICP. Head CTs were not obtained at prescribed time intervals; research CTs without clear benefit are not feasible in children.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.