Abstract T MP29: Impaired Vasodilatory Reserve on Acetazolamide-Challenged 99tc-hmpao-Spect is a Strong Predictor of Stroke Recurrence in Patients With Severe Steno-Occlusive Disease of Intracranial Carotid or Middle Cerebral Artery
Background: Intracranial stenosis carries an increased risk for cerebrovascular ischemia. In severe stenosis, cerebral autoregulation may be impaired due to inadequate cerebral vasodilatory reserve (CVR) & intracranial steal phenomenon (reversed-Robin Hood syndrome-RRHS). Identification of patients with inadequate CVR and RRHS may help in identifying high-risk patients.
Methods: In this prospective study, we included patients with symptomatic and severe stenosis of intracranial carotid (ICA) & middle cerebral artery (MCA). CVR was evaluated with transcranial Doppler (TCD) and breath-holding index (BHI) <0.69 determined inadequate CVR. RRHS was detected as transient velocity reduction in affected artery when flow increased in the reference artery. Patients with RRHS were further evaluated with acetazolamide-challenged 99Tc-HMPAO-SPECT.
Results: 126 patients (80 male, mean age 56yrs; range 23-78yrs) fulfilled our TCD criteria for inadequate CVR. HMPAO-SPECT showed impaired CVR in 84 (67%) patients. RRHS noted on TCD in 38 (45%) patients (median steal magnitude 14%; inter-quartile range, IQR 10) was confirmed by acetazolamide-challenged HMPAO-SPECT (median perfusion deficit 8%; IQR 13%) in 35 (92%) cases (sensitivity 82%, specificity 96% with positive predictive value 96%). A strong relationship between RRHS on TCD and SPECT was noted on ROC curve analysis (area under curve 0.93; 95% confidence interval 0.87-0.98;p<0.00001). Linear relationship was observed between impaired vasodilatory reserve and stroke recurrence during follow up (mean 35months; range 8 to 49months)- 56% in patients with RRHS versus 20% in patients with moderately impaired CVR versus 4% in patients with mildly impaired CVR (chi-square 18.42; df=2; p<0.001 for trend). RRHS on HMPAO-SPECT was an independent predictor of recurrent cerebral ischemic events (RR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2-4.2; p=0.03).
Conclusions: Among patients with severe intracranial stenosis, intracranial steal phenomenon is associated with high risk of cerebral ischemic events. Acetazolamide-challenged HMPAO-SPECT is reliable in the quantification of vasodilatory reserve for selecting a target group of patients for possible revascularization.
- Perfusion imaging
- Cerebrovascular circulation
- Cerebral perfusion
- Ultrasonic diagnosis
- Doppler ultrasound
Author Disclosures: P. Paliwal: None. L. Yeo: None. A.K. Sinha: None. A. Batra: None. R. Rathakrishnan: None. C. Ning: None. T. Tsai: None. H. Teoh: None. B.P.L. Chan: None. V.F. Chong: None. V. Sharma: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.