Abstract T P167: Emergent Identification of Type A Aortic Dissection as a Cause of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Background: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) sometimes presents with predominant neurological symptoms of acute cerebral ischemia. Fatal AAD patients after thrombolysis for stroke without noticing AAD were reported. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of AAD patients with acute cerebral ischemia and develop a score to emergently identify AAD for such patients.
Methods: From the database of Stanford type A-AAD patients admitted in our hospital between 2007 and 2012, we selected those presenting with acute focal neurological deficits due to ischemic stroke/TIA. Patients presenting with shock state or cardiopulmonary arrest were excluded. Physiological, radiological, and blood examinations were assessed for AAD identification.
Results: Of 187 AAD patients, 19 patients (10%) with focal neurological deficits as an initial presentation were studied. Involvement of one or more main branches of the aortic arch was observed in all of 19 patients. Stroke experts, not cardiovascular experts, were primarily called to ER in 18 patients, and 12 were potential candidates for intravenous thrombolysis. Left hemiparesis (14 patients, 74%) was the most common neurological symptom. Nine patients (47%) complained of chest or back pain. As components of the score, (1) systolic BP differential >20mmHg between upper extremities was present in 11 of 17 patients (65%), (2) mediastinal widening on chest radiography in 13/16 (81%), (3) occlusion or the intimal flap of the proximal common carotid artery on carotid ultrasonography in 14/16 (88%), (4) pericardial effusion on echocardiography in 10/19 (47%), and (5) abnormal elevation of D-dimer levels in all 19 (median 24.8 [range 4.2-406.2] μg/ml). Two components were positive in 4 patients, three in 6, four in 5, and all the five in 4.
Conclusions: Only half of AAD patients with stroke/TIA complained of chest or back pain. All the AAD patients with stroke/TIA showed high D-dimer levels and one or more additional abnormal findings in physiological and radiological examinations. Combination of such handy diagnostic tools is helpful to identify AAD without long time delay and to avoid unnecessary thrombolysis for AAD patients.
Author Disclosures: T. Ohara: None. K. Toyoda: None. H. Yokoyama: None. K. Minatoya: None. E. Tanaka: None. K. Nagatsuka: None. K. Minematsu: Honoraria; Modest; Kyowa Hakko Kirin Pharma, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Cooperation Inc,.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.