Abstract W P227: Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome after Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke
Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a recognized complication after surgical revascularization of a chronically atherosclerotic artery. However, this phenomenon is unexpected when an acutely occluded artery is recanalized by IV-TPA for acute ischemic stroke (AIS).In patients with discrepant neuroimaging and clinical findings, our multimodal evaluations revealed CHS in a series of 7 patientsmafter IV- TPA therapy.
Methods: Patients in whom the occluded ICA or MCA in pre-TPA CT-angiogram (CTA) showed recanalization in the day-2 CTA, were observed for any new unexpected neuropsychiatric symptoms/signs. If these were present they underwent multimodal evaluation including serial transcranial Doppler (TCD), quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and HMPAO-SPECT. Patients with considerable mismatch between clinical and neuroimaging findings were also included. CHS was deemed to have occurred if the unexpected neuropsychiatric signs corresponded with TCD flow velocity >100% of the contralateral vessel, EEG showed abnormal activity and HMPAO-SPECT scan showed markedly increased cerebral perfusion compared to the contralateral side.
Results: Out of 155 patients treated with IV-TPA, 7 (4.5%) patients fulfilled our definition of CHS. All 7 patients developed the symptoms 2-3 days after IV-TPA. Abnormalities on TCD, QEEG and HMPAO-SPECT were observed in all patients. The unexpected symptoms included generalized headache (4 cases), unexplained persistent drowsiness (3 cases), visual neglect (2 cases), aphasia (2 cases) and severe suicidal thoughts despite complete neurological recovery (1 case). All cases had hypertension prior to the index stroke. Upright posture, fluid restriction and aggressive blood pressure control resulted in rapid resolution of abnormal features in all cases within a week. All patients achieved modified Rankin score 0-1 with no intracranial hemorrhage.
Conclusion: CHS after intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke should be suspected in patients that achieve arterial recanalization with unexplained new neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis and appropriate management might prevent hemorrhage and achieve good functional outcomes.
Author Disclosures: L. Yeo: None. R. Rathakrishnan: None. H. Teoh: None. P. Paliwal: None. K.W.P. Ng: None. C. Bharatendu: None. B. Wakerley: None. J. Ong: None. A. Batra: None. E.Y.S. Ting: None. A.K. Sinha: None. V. Sharma: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.