Abstract T P413: Early Executive Dysfunction Predicts Poor Stroke Outcomes One Year Following Mild Ischemic Stroke
Background: Cognitive dysfunction has been considered a primary deficit to be addressed after mild stroke. Higher order cognitive deficits immediately after mild stroke may lead to poor longitudinal outcomes. However, existing stroke outcome studies tend to focus on physical capacity and mood rather than cognitive function.
Aim: To examine contribution of acute impairment of executive function(EF) and verbal memory (VM) after mild stroke to one year outcomes on Stroke Impact Scale (SIS, health-related quality of life), Activity Card Sort (ACS, activity participation), and Reintegration to Normal Living (RNL, life satisfaction), independent of demographics, ADL and depression.
Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke and initial NIHSS ≤ 5 enrolled in PROTECT-DC trial were included. Multiple linear regression analyses identified baseline variables significantly associated with each outcome of interest for all patients completing both baseline and one-year assessments. For each outcome, Model 1 included covariates: age, sex, race, education, lesion side, NIHSS, Barthel Index, Lawton IADL, and depression. In Model 2, all Model 1 variables and dichotomized cognitive variables (impaired versus not impaired) were entered into the equation. Examination of R2 change between Models 1 & 2 identified unique contributions of impaired EF or VM to each one-year outcome beyond Model 1 variables.
Results: A total of 86 participants completed baseline assessment and one-year SIS were included for analyses. Our results show that EF was significantly and independently associated with the SIS total score beyond other baseline variables. Participants with acute EF deficits at baseline had poorer SIS outcome at one year: mean 7.47 lower SIS score compared to patients without EF deficits (p = .021). Similar results were found for ACS and RNL.
Conclusion: Analyses suggest impact of EF deficits on activity participation, health-related quality of life, and life satisfaction one year after mild stroke. The findings highlight importance of assessment of EF deficits after mild stroke. We suggest that rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving long-term outcomes require careful consideration of assessing and treating EF deficits during the acute phase of mild stroke.
Author Disclosures: H. Chen: None. A.W. Dromerick: Other Research Support; Modest; NINDS:1U54NS057405-01A1. C.S. Kidwell: Research Grant; Modest; NINDS: 1U54NS057405-01A1. D.F. Edwards: Research Grant; Modest; NINDS: 1U54NS057405-01A1.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.