Abstract W P163: Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Events after Left Ventricular Assist Devices
Introduction: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly implanted for advanced heart failure either as a bridge to transplantation (BTT) or destination therapy (DT). The reported incidence of cerebrovascular events (CVE) following LVAD is 8-25%. The effects of medical comorbidities and perioperative events on the development of CVE are unclear.
Methods: CVEs were retrospectively identified from the Barnes-Jewish Hospital LVAD database consisting of 373 patients with mean LVAD support of 13.5 months (range 0 days-8.2 years); Heartmate II 87%, Heartware 13%. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected and analyzed in patients with and without CVE using standard statistical methods.
Results: CVE occurred in 71 patients (19%) at a rate of 0.17 per patient-year 24.5±30.7 months after implantation. Coronary artery disease (P=0.007), diabetes mellitus (P=0.02) and LVAD indication of DT (P=0.04) were more common in patients with CVEs. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, hospital length of stay and incidence of bacteremia were not different between those with early CVE (within 30 days of implantation, 35%) and without CVE. CVEs were ischemic (ICVE) in 35 (49%), hemorrhagic (HCVE, including intracerebral, subarachnoid, and subdural) in 26 (37%), and both in 10 (14%). Patients with ICVE and HCVE did not differ in demographic variables, pre-LVAD co-morbidities, post-LVAD complications, NIH Stroke Scale at time of event, or anti-thrombotic regimen (ATR), except that events in those on no ATR were only ischemic. Patients with HCVEs were more likely to be discharged with no ATR (P=0.015). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with CVE (59.1% vs. 29.2% in those without CVE) but did not differ by CVE type. In patients with CVE, 57.1% of deaths were secondary to the CVE (ICVE 25%, HCVE 93.7%, P<0.001). Among BTT patients, only 14.6% with CVE underwent transplantation vs. 39.8% without CVE (P =0.002).
Conclusions: CVE remains a serious complication of LVAD support for advanced heart failure and is associated with increased mortality and lower rates of heart transplantation. Further investigations to identify risk factors for CVEs in LVAD patients and potential preventive measures including optimal ATRs are warranted.
Author Disclosures: P. Tahsili-Fahadan: None. D.R. Curfman: None. A.A. Davis: None. N. Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi: None. M.E. Nassif: None. S.J. LaRue: None. G.A. Ewald: Other Research Support; Modest; Thoratec. Consultant/Advisory Board; Modest; Thoratec, Heartware. A.R. Zazulia: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.