Stroke Literature Synopses: Basic Science
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The mitochondrion is the major organelle responsible for energy generation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many central nervous system diseases including stroke. Three recent studies summarized below provide novel insights into mitochondrial mechanisms that may impact neuronal function.
Wang et al (The inhibition of TDP-43 mitochondrial localization blocks its neuronal toxicity. Nat Med. 2016;32:869–878. doi: 10.1038/nm.4130.) revealed that mitochondrial localization of TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) in neurons caused mitochondrial dysfunction to induce neuronal death and proposed that TDP-43 mitochondrial localization can be a therapeutic target for neurodegeneration. TDP-43 is an RNA- and DNA-binding protein. Previous studies implied that the redistribution of TDP-43 from the nucleus to cytoplasm is closely related to degenerating neurons in central nervous system diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal dementia. To examine the underlying molecular mechanisms, the authors first investigated the colocalization of TDP-43 with neuronal organelles in central …