Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity Scale to Predict Large Artery Occlusion
Design and Comparison With Other Scales
Background and Purpose—We designed and validated a simple prehospital stroke scale to identify emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and compared the scale to other published scales for prediction of ELVO.
Methods—A national historical test cohort of 3127 patients with information on intracranial vessel status (angiography) before reperfusion therapy was identified. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) items with the highest predictive value of occlusion of a large intracranial artery were identified, and the most optimal combination meeting predefined criteria to ensure usefulness in the prehospital phase was determined. The predictive performance of Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity (PASS) scale was compared with other published scales for ELVO.
Results—The PASS scale was composed of 3 NIHSS scores: level of consciousness (month/age), gaze palsy/deviation, and arm weakness. In derivation of PASS 2/3 of the test cohort was used and showed accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76 for detecting large arterial occlusion. Optimal cut point ≥2 abnormal scores showed: sensitivity=0.66 (95% CI, 0.62–0.69), specificity=0.83 (0.81–0.85), and area under the curve=0.74 (0.72–0.76). Validation on 1/3 of the test cohort showed similar performance. Patients with a large artery occlusion on angiography with PASS ≥2 had a median NIHSS score of 17 (interquartile range=6) as opposed to PASS <2 with a median NIHSS score of 6 (interquartile range=5). The PASS scale showed equal performance although more simple when compared with other scales predicting ELVO.
Conclusions—The PASS scale is simple and has promising accuracy for prediction of ELVO in the field.
- Received December 18, 2015.
- Revision received April 8, 2016.
- Accepted April 25, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.