Stroke Literature Synopses: Basic Science
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The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important target to suppress brain damage and also promote brain repair in stroke. After stroke onset, the initial phase comprises leakage and exacerbation of brain damage. But during the delayed phase, endogenous mechanisms of barrier genesis and repair may also occur. Three recent articles define promising new mechanisms that may contribute to this balance initial injury and subsequent repair.
Several deleterious factors/cascades for stroke-induced BBB damage have been reported. However, the mechanisms of early BBB disruption after stroke are poorly understood. Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is well known to mediate ischemia-induced BBB disruption by degrading endothelial junction proteins and basal lamina, but Shi et al (Rapid endothelial cytoskeletal reorganization enables early blood-brain barrier disruption and long-term ischaemic reperfusion brain injury. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10523. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10523.) demonstrated that early/subtle BBB leakage within 30 to 60 minutes after ischemia–reperfusion injury was independent of MMP-9 activities. Instead, …