Changes in the Employment Status and Risk of Stroke and Stroke Types
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Background and Purpose—Because of limited evidence, we investigated a long-term impact of changes in employment status on risk of stroke.
Methods—This was a prospective study of 21 902 Japanese men and 19 826 women aged 40 to 59 years from 9 public health centers across Japan. Participants were followed up from 1990 to 1993 to the end of 2009 to 2014. Cox proportional hazard ratio of stroke (incidence and mortality) and its types (hemorrhagic and ischemic) was calculated according to changes in the employment status within 5 years interval between 1990 to 1993 and 1995 to 1998 (continuously employed, job loss, reemployed, and continuously unemployed).
Results—During the follow-up period, 973 incident cases and 275 deaths from stroke in men and 460 cases and 131 deaths in women were documented. Experiencing 1 spell of unemployment was associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality from total, hemorrhagic, and ischemic stroke in both men and women, even after propensity score matching. Compared with continuously employed subjects, the multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for total stroke incidence in job lost men was 1.58 (1.18–2.13) and in job lost women was 1.51 (1.08–2.29), and those for total stroke mortality were 2.22 (1.34–3.68) in men and 2.48 (1.26–4.77) in women. The respective hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) in reemployed men was 2.96 (1.89–4.62) for total stroke incidence and 4.21 (1.97–8.97) for mortality, whereas those in reemployed women were 1.30 (0.98–1.69) for incidence and 1.28 (0.76–2.17) for mortality.
Conclusions—Job lost men and women and reemployed men had increased risks for both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence and mortality.
- Received October 15, 2016.
- Revision received February 5, 2017.
- Accepted February 16, 2017.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.