Influence of Anesthetics on Metabolic, Functional and Pathological Responses to Regional Cerebral Ischemia
Regional cerebral ischemia was produced by common carotid artery occlusion in gerbils and by middle cerebral artery occlusion in dogs, cats, and squirrel monkeys. Anesthesia was induced with either pentobarbital or halothane and maintained for two to there hours after vessel occlusion. In acute studies, the effect of regional cerebral ischemia on cerebral concentrations of ATP, phosphocreatine, lactate, and pyruvate was determined at the end of this period in gerbils, cats, and squirrel monkeys. In chronic studies, the degree of neurological deficit and size of cerebral infarction were determined 48 hours after a two-hour to three-hour period of vessel occlusion in cats and squirrel monkeys and permanent occlusion in dogs. In gerbils, dogs, and cats, there were no differences in the metabolic, functional, or pathological effects of anesthesia with pentobarbital or halothane. However, in the squirrel monkey, in acute studies the metabolic alterations were significantly less with pentobarbital, and in chronic studies the frequency and magnitude of functional deficits and cerebral infarction were significantly less. We conclude that pentobarbital does provide a degree of protection during regional cerebral ischemia but that such effects are only consistently demonstrable in primates. In nonprimates, we assume that variability in the collateral circulation renders demonstration of significant differences difficult or impossible.
- cerebral energy state
- cerebral protection
- cerebral infarction
- species variability
- © 1975 American Heart Association, Inc.