Experimental regional cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery territory in primates. Part 1: Angio-anatomy and description of an experimental model with selective embolization of the internal carotid artery bifurcation.
Selective embolization of the internal carotid artery bifurcation (ICA bifurcation) was performed in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to study acute regional cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory with minimum surgical intervention in the neck under sedated conditions. The anthropomorphic similarity in angio-anatomy of the carotid system of monkeys and the use of silastic spheres, as artificial emboli, of the critical diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm resulted in the overall success rate of 87% in localizing the site of embolization to the ICA bifurcation, producing ischemia in the whole middle cerebral artery territory. All the animals with ICA-bifurcation embolization had contralateral deep motor weakness and conjugate eye deviation with nystagmus toward the site of embolization. Simultaneous EEG recording showed flattening of the basic background activities over the affected MCA area and cerebral arteriograms showed definite retrograde filling of the proximally occluded MCA. Clinical recovery was observed in a few animals within two to five hours of embolization. Gross ischemic swelling in the affected MCA territory, particularly in the gray matter, became obvious in six of eight animals which were exposed to four to five hours of ischemia. The angio-anatomical study of the carotid system of this experimental animal as a background for this MCA stroke model confirmed the previous observations of other investigators that the extremely abundant leptomeningeal anastomoses would be one of the major factors leading to the variability in the clinicopathological pictures seen in the models of proximal MCA occlusion. In addition, the pre-parenchymal anastomoses in the base of brain between the medial striate arteries from the proximal anterior cerebral (ACA) and lateral lenticulostriate arteries from the MCA were observed and described as a possible functional collateral to the basal ganglia in case of proximal MCA occlusion.
- Copyright © 1977 by American Heart Association