Endogenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Mediates Bone Marrow Stromal Cell-Induced Neurite Remodeling After Stroke in Mice
Background and Purpose—Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) decrease neurological deficits in rodents after stroke and concomitantly induce extensive neurite remodeling in the brain, which highly correlates with the improvement of neurological function. We investigated the effects of endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on neurite remodeling after BMSC treatment.
Methods—Adult C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and tPA knockout (tPA−/−) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by an injection of 1×106 BMSC (n=18) or phosphate-buffered saline (n=18) into the tail vein 24 hours later. Behavioral tests were performed at 3, 7, and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were euthanized at 14 days after stroke.
Results—The effects of BMSC on functional recovery depended on presence or absence of tPA, even after adjusting for imbalanced stroke severity. BMSC significantly improve functional recovery in WT mice compared to WT controls but show no beneficial effect in the tPA−/− mice compared to tPA−/− controls. Axonal density and synaptophysin-positive areas along the ischemic boundary zone of the cortex and striatum in WT mice are significantly higher than in the tPA−/− mice. BMSC treatment significantly increases tPA protein level and activity only in WT mice.
Conclusions—Our results suggest that endogenous tPA promotes BMSC-induced neurite outgrowth and may contribute to functional recovery after stroke.
- Received June 16, 2010.
- Accepted September 21, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.