The Prognostic Effects of Poststroke Cognitive Impairment No Dementia and Domain-Specific Cognitive Impairments in Nondisabled Ischemic Stroke Patients
Background and Purpose—There is some evidence that poststroke dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND), and mild cognitive impairment predict for poor outcomes such as dementia, death, and institutionalization. However, few studies have examined the prognostic value of CIND, CIND severity, and domain impairments in a poststroke cohort.
Methods—A cohort of ischemic stroke patients with baseline cognitive assessments 3 months poststroke were followed up annually for outcomes of dependency, vascular events, and death for up to 5 years. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional regression was performed to determine the ability CIND, CIND severity, and domain impairments to predict dependency, vascular outcomes, and death.
Results—Four-hundred nineteen patients without dementia (mean age 60±11 years, 32% female) were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. Older age, diabetes, more severe strokes, CIND-mild, and CIND-moderate were independently predictive of dependency. There were no independent predictors of recurrent vascular events. Older age, diabetes, and CIND-moderate were independently predictive of death. In analyses of individual cognitive domains, impairments in visuomotor speed were independently predictive of dependency.
Conclusions—In poststroke patients, CIND predicts dependency and death, while CIND severity discriminates patients with poor survival. Impairments in visuomotor speed independently predict dependency.
- Received July 1, 2010.
- Accepted November 12, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.