Restenosis After Carotid Surgery
The Importance of Clinical Presentation and Preoperative Timing
Background and Purpose—Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) of stable atherosclerotic plaques is associated with an increased risk for restenosis. Patients with transient ischemic attack and patients with and stroke have relatively unstable atherosclerotic plaques. However, carotid plaques stabilize over time after a cerebrovascular event due to plaque repair after rupture. These findings raised 2 questions: (1) Is preoperative clinical presentation related to restenosis after CEA? (2) Does delayed revascularization result in a higher risk for restenosis compared with CEA in the short term after a cerebrovascular event?
Methods—Between 2002 and 2009, 1203 patients undergoing CEA were included. The impact of clinical presentation on the occurrence of restenosis 1 year after CEA was investigated and corrected for cardiovascular risk factors, medication use, and type of arteriotomy closure. Patency was assessed with standardized duplex ultrasound imaging at 1 year after CEA. Restenosis was defined as recurrent luminal narrowing ≥50% at the endarterectomy site.
Results—At 1 year of follow-up, restenosis was observed more frequently in asymptomatic patients than in patients with transient ischemic attack and patients with stroke. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for restenosis was 0.56 (0.35 to 0.89) for patients with transient ischemic attack and 0.49 (0.27 to 0.87) for patients with stroke compared with asymptomatic patients. Subgroup analysis showed an increased risk for restenosis if CEA was performed >30 days after stroke (adjusted OR, 2.23; 1.02 to 5.73).
Conclusions—Asymptomatic patients have an increased risk for restenosis at 1 year after CEA compared with patients with transient ischemic stroke and patients with stroke. CEA within 30 days after stroke is associated with a decreased risk of restenosis, which supports the current strategy for early surgical intervention after stroke.
- asymptomatic carotid stenosis
- carotid endarterectomy
- stroke risk factors
- timing of surgery
- transient ischemic attack
- Received September 30, 2010.
- Revision received October 29, 2010.
- Accepted November 9, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.