In Vivo Real-Time Multiphoton Imaging of T Lymphocytes in the Mouse Brain After Experimental Stroke
Background and Purpose—To gain a better understanding of T cell behavior after stroke, we have developed real-time in vivo brain imaging of T cells by multiphoton microscopy after middle cerebral artery occlusion.
Methods—Adult male hCD2-GFP transgenic mice that exhibit green fluorescent protein-labeled T cells underwent permanent left distal middle cerebral artery occlusion by electrocoagulation (n=6) or sham surgery (n=6) and then multiphoton laser imaging 72 hours later.
Results—Extravasated T cell number significantly increased after middle cerebral artery occlusion versus sham. Two T cell populations existed after middle cerebral artery occlusion, possibly driven by 2 T cell subpopulations; 1 had significantly lower and the other significantly higher track velocity and displacement rate than sham.
Conclusions—The different motilities and behaviors of T cells observed using our imaging approach after stroke could reveal important mechanisms of immune surveillance for future therapeutic exploitations.
- Received October 7, 2010.
- Revision received November 30, 2010.
- Accepted December 21, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.