Global Cerebral Edema and Brain Metabolism After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Global cerebral edema is common among patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with poor outcome. Currently no targeted therapy exists largely due to an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms.
Methods—This is a prospective observational study including 39 consecutive patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage with multimodal neuromonitoring. Levels of microdialysate lactate–pyruvate ratio, episodes of cerebral metabolic crisis (lactate-pyruvate ratio >40 and brain glucose <0.7 mmol/L), brain tissue oxygen tension, cerebral perfusion pressure, and transcranial Doppler sonography flow velocities were analyzed.
Results—Median age was 54 years (range, 45 to 61 years) and 62% were female. Patients with global cerebral edema on admission (n=24 [62%]) had a higher incidence of metabolic crisis in the first 12 hours of monitoring (n=15 [15% versus 2%], P<0.05) and during the total time of neuromonitoring (20% versus 3%, P<0.001) when compared to those without global cerebral edema. There was no difference in brain tissue oxygen tension or cerebral perfusion pressure between the groups; however, in patients with global cerebral edema, a higher cerebral perfusion pressure was associated with lower lactate–pyruvate ratio (P<0.05). Episodes of metabolic crisis were associated with poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 5 or 6, P<0.05).
Conclusions—In patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage, global cerebral edema is associated with early brain metabolic distress.
- Received October 1, 2010.
- Revision received November 13, 2010.
- Accepted November 15, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.