Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A Treatment Improves Neurological Outcome and Reduces Cerebral Infarct Size in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Stroke
Background and Purpose—Treatment of ischemic stroke by activation of endogenous plasminogen using tissue plasminogen activator is limited by bleeding side effects. In mice, treatment of experimental ischemic stroke with activated protein C improves outcomes; however, activated protein C also has bleeding side effects. In contrast, activation of endogenous protein C using thrombin mutant W215A/E217A (WE) is antithrombotic without hemostasis impairment in primates. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of WE-treated experimental ischemic stroke in mice.
Methods—The middle cerebral artery was occluded with a filament for 60 minutes to induce ischemic stroke. Vehicle, recombinant WE, or tissue plasminogen activator was administered during middle cerebral artery occlusion or 2 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurological performance was scored daily. Intracranial bleeding and cerebral infarct size, defined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride exclusion, were determined on autopsy. Hemostasis was evaluated using tail bleeding tests.
Results—WE improved neurological performance scores, increased laser Doppler flowmetry-monitored post-middle cerebral artery occlusion reperfusion of the parietal cortex, and reduced 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-defined cerebral infarct size versus vehicle controls. However, unlike tissue plasminogen activator, WE did not increase tail bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage.
Conclusions—WE treatment is neuroprotective without hemostasis impairment in experimental acute ischemic stroke in mice and thus may provide an alternative to tissue plasminogen activator for stroke treatment.
- Received September 28, 2010.
- Accepted January 11, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.