Molecular Pathophysiology of Cerebral Hemorrhage
Secondary Brain Injury
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an often fatal type of stroke that kills ≈30 000 people annually in the United States. If the patient survives the ictus, then the resulting hematoma within brain parenchyma triggers a series of adverse events causing secondary insults and severe neurological deficits. This article discusses selected aspects of secondary brain injury after ICH and outlines key mechanisms associated with hematoma toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally, this review discusses the relevance of hematoma resolution processes as a target for ICH therapy and presents potential clinically relevant molecular targets that could be harnessed to treat secondary injury associated with ICH injury.
- Received January 21, 2011.
- Accepted February 17, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.